Anxiety, Phobia, psychological, symptoms
  • Mysophobia is an extreme fear of germs. You may go out of your way to avoid situations that expose you to germs. The phobia and steps you take to avoid it worsen over time. You may find yourself stuck in a cycle of repetitive behaviors. That affect your quality of life, similar to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
  • Mysophobia, also known as germophobia, germaphobia, verminophobia, and bacillophobia, is the fear of contamination and germs.
  • Germophobia is a term used to describe a pathological fear of germs, bacteria, uncleanliness, contamination, and infection.
  • It is most commonly associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but can present in a wide variety of people. Individuals with germophobia may feel compelled to excessively wash their hands. And to take other precautions against contamination.
  • Germs are everywhere, and anyone practicing good hygiene and healthy living. Should take general precautions against contamination. Living life means sometimes encountering dirt, illness, or bacteria. But for some individuals, fear of coming into contact with germs significantly interferes with their lives.
  • People with mysophobia struggle to evaluate which situations are dangerous. As they feel worried or panicked when encountering daily scenarios which involve germs. They will take extensive measure to avoid contamination. Or decontaminate themselves and the spaces they inhabit.


What is mysophobia?

Mysophobia is an extreme fear of germs. It causes an overwhelming obsession with contamination. The condition goes by other names, including:

  1. Bacillophobia
  2. Bacteriophobia
  3. Germophobia
  4. Verminophobia

What are phobias?

It’s natural to fear situations that seem dangerous or uncomfortable. You may also get anxious about things that can affect your well-being, like foods that make you sick. But these situations rarely disrupt daily activities. Phobias cause more intense feelings. Phobias cause abnormal thoughts and behaviors that are difficult to control.

Do you have mysophobia?

When living with mysophobia, you are constantly worried about germs. You may go out of your way to avoid:

  1. Contact with other people’s body fluids
  2. Dirt, dust, mold and other substances associated with germs
  3. Contaminated food
  4. Items and surfaces when you don’t know whether they are clean

What are some other mysophobia facts?

Mysophobia is a specific phobia, meaning that it is due to a particular situation. People with mysophobia may also suffer from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). People with OCD take comfort in repetitive, irrational thoughts and urges.

It is also common to have more than one specific phobia. In people with mysophobia, this may include:

  1. Ataxophobia: Fear of untidiness
  2. Microphobia: Fear of small things
  3. Nosophobia: Fear of disease
  4. Thanatophobia: Fear of death
  5. Zoophobia: Fear of animals

Symptoms and causes

What are the causes of mysophobia?

  • People are at higher risk of developing phobias when anxiety or depression run in their family. Some people may develop mysophobia after experiencing a traumatic event. Whereas others may start focusing on germs as a result of their anxiety.
  • Some experts assert that the increased use of hygiene items, like toilet seat covers and hand sanitizers. Has contributed to the rise of mysophobia in the United States. People with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are at higher risk for developing mysophobia. Because they may experience obsessive thoughts about germs and compulsively clean or sanitize their house or workspace.

Further causes of germaphobia

Like other phobias, germaphobia often begins between childhood and young adulthood. Several factors are believed to contribute to the development of a phobia. These include:

  1. Negative experiences in childhood: Many people with germaphobia can recall a specific event or traumatic experience that led to germ-related fears.
  2. Family history: Phobias can have a genetic link. Having a close family member with a phobia or another anxiety disorder can increase your risk. However, they might not have the same phobia as you.
  3. Environmental factors: Beliefs and practices about cleanliness or hygiene that you are exposed. To as a young person may influence the development of germaphobia.
  4. Brain factors: Certain changes in brain chemistry and function are thought to play a role in the development of phobias.

Triggers are objects, places, or situations that aggravate phobia symptoms. Germaphobia triggers that cause symptoms can include:

  1. bodily fluids such as mucus, saliva, or semen
  2. unclean objects and surfaces, such as doorknobs, computer keyboards, or unwashed clothes
  3. places where germs are known to collect, such as airplanes or hospitals
  4. unhygienic practices or people
  5. Genetics and your environment raise the risk of specific phobias, including mysophobia

What are mysophobia symptoms?

Anxiety, Phobia, psychological, symptoms

When you are living with mysophobia, you are constantly thinking about germs. Exposure to and thoughts of germs cause behavioral changes and physical responses.


Behaviors that can affect your daily life include:

  1. Washing your hands often, several times in a row, or for an unusually long time
  2. Always wearing gloves to prevent contact with germs
  3. Avoiding social situations, even when they include loved ones
  4. Covering items you use daily, such as remote controls or the steering wheel of your car
  5. Minimizing time in public areas, including restrooms, grocery stores and restaurants
  6. Returning home immediately if you fear you have been exposed to germs
  7. Taking multiple showers a day
  8. Using hand sanitizer every time you touch an unfamiliar surface

Physical symptoms

Mysophobia can also make you unwell, with symptoms that include:

  1. Brain fog
  2. Frequent bouts of crying
  3. Irritability
  4. Lightheadedness
  5. Rapid heartbeat (palpitations)
  6. Restlessness
  7. Shaking
  8. Sweating

Other symptoms include:

  1. avoiding places perceived as germ-filled
  2. spending excessive time cleaning and decontaminating
  3. washing hands obsessively
  4. refusing to share personal items
  5. avoiding physical contact with others
  6. fearing contamination of children
  7. avoiding crowds or animals

The emotional and psychological symptoms of germaphobia include:

  1. intense terror or fear of germs
  2. anxiety, worries, or nervousness related to exposure to germs
  3. thoughts of germ exposure resulting in an illnesses or other negative consequence
  4. thoughts of being overcome with fear in situations when germs are present
  5. trying to distract yourself from thoughts about germs or situations that involve germs
  6. feeling powerless to control a fear of germs that you recognize as unreasonable or extreme.

Miscellaneous  symptoms of germaphobia include:

  1. avoiding or leaving situations perceived to result in germ exposure
  2. spending an excessive amount of time thinking about, preparing for, or putting off situations that might involve germs
  3. seeking help to cope with the fear or situations that cause fear
  4. difficulty functioning at home, work, or school because of fear of germs (for example, the need to excessively wash your hands may limit your productivity in places where you perceive there to be many germs)
Children who have a fear of germs can also experience the symptoms listed above. Depending on their age, they may experience additional symptoms, such as:
  1. tantrums, crying, or screaming
  2. clinging to or refusing to leave parents
  3. difficulty sleeping
  4. nervous movements
  5. self-esteem issues
  6. Sometimes a fear of germs can lead to obsessive-compulsive disorder.
  7. When a person is exposed to germs or potential contamination. They may experience the physical symptoms of panic, such as increased heart rate, nausea, shortness of breath, sweating, etc. In order to receive a diagnosis, there must also be evidence.
  8. That the fear of germs has interfered significantly with the individual’s daily life and relationships. A person with mysophobia will find that their interactions with others. And ability to travel and to work is affected by the desire to avoid contamination or illness.

Impact on lifestyle

  • With germaphobia, the fear of germs is persistent enough to impact your day-to-day life. People with this fear might go to great lengths to avoid actions. That could result in contamination, such as eating out at a restaurant or having sex.
  • They might also avoid places where germs are plentiful, such as public bathrooms, restaurants, or buses. Some places are harder to avoid, such as school or work. In these places, actions like touching a doorknob. Or shaking hands with someone can lead to significant anxiety.
  • Sometimes, this anxiety leads to compulsive behaviors. Someone with germaphobia might frequently wash their hands, shower, or wipe surfaces clean.
  • While these repeated actions might actually reduce the risk of contamination. They can be all-consuming, making it difficult to focus on anything else.

Relation to obsessive-compulsive disorder

Passing concern about germs or illnesses isn’t necessarily a sign of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

  • With OCD, recurring and persistent obsessions result in significant anxiety and distress. These feelings result in compulsive and repetitive behaviors that provide some relief. Cleaning is a common compulsion among people who have OCD.
  • It is possible to have germaphobia without OCD, and vice versa. Some people have both germaphobia and OCD.
  • The key difference is that people with germaphobia clean in an effort to reduce germs. While people with OCD clean (engage in the ritual behavior) to reduce their anxiety.

Diagnosis and tests

How is mysophobia diagnosed?

Healthcare providers typically diagnose a specific phobia like mysophobia in a single office visit. Testing isn’t necessary. Instead, healthcare providers ask you about your symptoms and changes in your behaviors.

  • Germaphobia falls under the category of specific phobias in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5).
  • To diagnose a phobia, a clinician will conduct an interview. The interview might include questions about your current symptoms, as well as your medical, psychiatric, and family history.
  • The DSM-5 includes a list of criteria used to diagnose phobias. In addition to experiencing certain symptoms, a phobia typically causes significant distress, impacts your ability to function, and lasts for a period of six months or more.

During the diagnosis process, your clinician may also ask questions to identify whether your fear of germs is caused by OCD.

Questions may include:

  1. How often do you think about germs?
  2. Have you experienced a traumatic event related to germs?
  3. How do germs make you feel?
  4. Is mysophobia is causing behavioral changes that affect your happiness or daily routine?
  5. Do you have a personal or family history of anxiety or obsessive-compulsive disorder?
  6. Are you avoiding people or places you used to enjoy due to fear of germs?

Healthy vs ‘unreasonable’ fear of germs

Most people take precautions to avoid common illnesses, such as colds and the flu. We should all be somewhat concerned about germs during flu season, for example.

  • In fact, it is a good idea to take certain steps to lower your risk of contracting a contagious illness. And potentially passing it on to others. It is important to get a seasonal flu shot and wash your hands. On a regular basis to avoid getting sick with the flu.
  • Concern for germs becomes unhealthy when the amount of distress. It causes outweighs the distress it prevents. There is only so much you can do to avoid germs.

There may be signs that your fear of germs is harmful to you. For instance:

  • If your worries about germs put significant limitations on what you do. Where you go, and who you see, there may be reason for concern.
  • If you are aware that your fear of germs is irrational, but feel powerless to stop it, you may need help.
  • If the routines and rituals you feel compelled to carry out to avoid contamination leave. You feeling ashamed or mentally unwell, your fears may have crossed the line into a more serious phobia.

Management and treatment

Treatment options

Mysophobia is usually treated with therapy, medication, or a combination of the two.

  • Antidepressant medications known as SSRIs are frequently prescribed to help manage symptoms of anxiety· Exposure therapy is also used to treat mysophobia, as individuals become gradually. Used to reversing behaviors in a way that feels safe and gradual (i.e. increasing time in between hand washing).
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy can also help an individual test the reality. Of irrational thought patterns they have about germs and contamination. There are many mental health professionals who specialize in phobias. So never hesitate to speak up about your specific symptoms and how they impact your life

How can you overcome mysophobia?

  • A common mysophobia treatment is exposure therapy. Working with your mental health provider, you explore the reasons behind your fear of germs. This is the first step in overcoming mysophobia. When you feel comfortable, your therapist gradually exposes you to situations where germs may be present.
  • Therapy starts with low-risk exposures, such as thinking about germs. As you progress through treatment, exposures become more significant. You may touch unsanitized objects or start spending more time in public places. With successful treatment, you learn how to manage negative thoughts and feelings.

Action Steps

  1. Educate yourself: One of the challenges of overcoming mysophobia is learning to correct irrational thoughts. You have about germs and contamination. Reading or watching videos about how bacteria are a natural part of our bodies. And our environment can help you manage fear and worry. Education can also give you a sense of general hygiene requirements. So that you can evaluate your own behaviors with what might be recommended by a doctor.
  • Find support: Millions of Americans suffer from a specific phobia, so take some time to check out. What support is available to you in your community. In-person and online support groups can be an encouraging force in the lives of people. Who want to manage their anxiety about germs. Also, do not feel embarrassed to tell friends and family about your phobia and how they can support you in your treatment.
  • Recruit a professional: It is difficult to overcome a phobia without the help of a professional. Talk to your doctor or a mental health professional about what therapy approaches and/or medications. Could help you begin to manage your anxiety and reduce obsessive behaviors that inhibit your life. They may need to do further evaluation to determine if you have OCD or another anxiety disorder. If they don’t have experience working with mysophobia. Don’t hesitate to ask for a referral to someone with expertise.

Though mysophobia can feel overpowering, it is a very treatable condition. With the right knowledge and support, you can begin to learn to manage your anxiety. About germs and live a full and healthy life.

Can other treatments help me cope with mysophobia?

Additional treatments may include:

Therapy, also known as psychotherapy or counselling, can help you face your fear of germs. The most successful treatments for phobias are exposure therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

  • Exposure therapy or desensitization involves gradual exposure to germaphobia triggers. The goal is to reduce anxiety and fear caused by germs. Over time, you regain control of your thoughts about germs.
  • CBT is usually used in combination with exposure therapy. It includes a series of coping skills that you can apply in situations. When your fear of germs becomes overwhelming. Undergoing CBT helps you address why germs make you uncomfortable. You also learn methods for regaining control when these thoughts get overwhelming.


Therapy is usually enough to treat a phobia. In some cases, medications are used to relieve symptoms of anxiety associated with exposure to germs in the short term. These medications include:

  1. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
  2. Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
Medication is also available to address symptoms of anxiety during specific situations. These include:
  1. beta blockers
  2. antihistamines
  3. sedatives

Drugs don’t cure mysophobia. But antidepressants can help with mood disorders, and anti-anxiety medications. May help you cope in a stressful situation. If you are anxious about going out in public, medications may help.

Stress reduction:

Yoga, meditation and other relaxation techniques quiet an overactive mind. This can make it easier to think positive thoughts instead of always bracing for the worst.


Certain lifestyle changes and home remedies might help relieve your fear of germs. These include:

  1. practicing mindfulness or meditation to target anxiety
  2. applying other relaxation techniques, such as deep breathing or yoga
  3. staying active
  4. getting enough sleep
  5. eating healthy
  6. seeking a support group
  7. confronting feared situations when possible
  8. reducing caffeine or other stimulant consumption


  • Because people with mysophobia fear germs carried by others, the condition can lead people to avoid social situations. You might avoid expected gatherings such as work parties, holiday get-togethers, and meetings. When you do participate, you may find yourself avoiding physical contact and sanitizing your hands more frequently.
  • Over time, these behaviors can lead to isolation. Your friends and relatives might not understand, and they could perceive you as hostile or even paranoid. You could develop social phobia, in which you begin to fear contact with others.


Is there anything you can do to prevent mysophobia?

  • If you have anxiety or OCD, it is important to find healthy ways of managing your thoughts and reactions to germs. Doing so may lower the risk of these situations escalating into a phobia.
  • It is also possible to lower the risk of mysophobia by taking good care of your mental health. You can do this by:
  • Limiting alcohol and recreational drug consumption
  • Lowering stress during everyday activities
  • Quitting smoking and other forms of tobacco use
  • Spending time with loved ones
  • Taking up a new hobby to take your mind off germs and other stressors

Outlook / prognosis

What is the outlook for people with mysophobia?

Exposure therapy and other treatments can help you overcome your fear of germs. You may find the behaviors that used to make you feel better are no longer necessary. This makes it easier to go about your daily life. You may still be more sensitive to germs than other people. But you will know how to cope with exposures without fear replacing rational thoughts.

What else is important to know about mysophobia?

  • When you are living with mysophobia, you may be stuck in unhealthy behavior patterns. You may also feel powerless to change them. It is possible to overcome your fear of germs. You are more likely to be successful when you undergo treatment.
  • If you have an abnormal fear of germs, you may have mysophobia. You shouldn’t have to live your life in fear of exposure. Germs are always present, but they don’t always cause disease. Your healthcare provider can help you explore your feelings and learn healthy coping methods. This process can take time. But know that many people successfully overcome mysophobia.
Anxiety, Phobia, psychological, symptoms


The takeaway

  • It is normal to feel concerned about germs. But germ worries might be a sign of something more serious. When they start to interfere with your ability to work, study, or socialize.
  • Make an appointment with a doctor or therapist if you feel like your anxieties. Surrounding germs are limiting your quality of life. There are numerous treatment methods that can help you.
  • Mysophobia can create significant distress and disruption in your life. But it is important to remember that effective treatments are available. Talking to your doctor is a good place to start, but you can also practice. Coping strategies on your own that will help relieve stress and anxiety.

If you think that you may also have OCD, see your doctor or a mental health professional for a diagnosis. Getting an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help you find relief and improve your overall well-being.



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